Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Finding the Right Furniture Plan for Your Next Project

Finding the right furniture plan is not easy. I know my next project is usually driven by the "honey Do" list and that means that it has to fit in with the decor. If you are going to build a project you may want to understand the styles of furniture that you can choose from. I thought I would do the work for you and give you an idea of ​​what each style provides.

The key styles that are the most popular are Mission, Modern, Retro, and Country.

Modern styled furniture is just that – Modern. If you can picture clean lines and geometric shapes, then you will have an idea of ​​what Modern furniture looks like. Think of George Jetson, or your favorite Sci-Fi movie, and you will get a picture of what modern looks like. If this is the style that you are looking for, you may want to go to IKEA and purchase it because this style of furniture can be either hard or easy to make depending on the shape of the finished piece.

Mission styled furniture is a little more woodworker friendly. It has a distinct style that makes it stand out. The chairs typically have tall backs, and all are designed with basically straight lines and very little curves. The hardware has the old tarnished brass look. If you can picture Mennonite furniture, then you will be pretty close to identifying mission furniture. The style is characterized by simple, functional designs made of oak and stained wood with minimal ornamentation. Leather and Native American designs are often the motif of the coverage.

Country Style furniture gained popularity in the 1980's. It is a casual style often featuring nature and nostalgic motifs. You will also find much hand crafted elements and even disturbing of the wood. This style of furniture is the most practical and useful edition of traditional furniture. There are several types of country furniture. French Provencal, American country and English country are some of them to name. Each of them has its own distinct feature and appeal; you can seriously categorize them as rural. However, you can find some common features like painted finish and muted colors, in all of them. Floral, stripes, checks are most common prototypes in fabric used in country style furniture.

Retro Style furniture belongs to, or has the look of having been made in the decades between the 1950s and the 1980s. This style of furniture tends to look back nostalgically on times past and tries to imitate it. This style of furniture can be whimsical and can allude to pop culture. If you can picture the big bold colors and sleek lines, then you have done it right. Unfortunately for the avid wood worker you will have to dig deep to find a plan you can build that resembles this style as they tend not to be made of wood, but of metal.

How the Internet Affects Traditional Media

Traditional Publishing, REST IN PEACE

This is the headline that greets you when you land on a web page erected as a memorial to commemorate the decline of Traditional Media. A photograph of a man who seems to be in distress and who’s possibly just lost his job accompanies this headline. If this does not paint a bleak picture, go on to read the 548 headlines that all sing to the same tune as the following:

  • Bad Times: NYT Says Revenue Fell 13.9% Last Month

    – Forbes.com

  • Men’s monthly magazine Arena to cease printing after 22 years

    – Guardian.co.uk

  • Cosmopolitan UK publisher to cut 100 jobs

    – Guardian.co.uk

There’s even a website entitled Newspaper Death Watch that chronicles all the publishing and newspaper houses that close down. All rather morbid wouldn’t you say?

The Deadly Spell

Let’s take a quick look at Traditional Media and how the Internet cast it’s deadly spell.

Back in the old days, we’re talking 500 years ago; Gutenberg revolutionized the printing industry by inventing the printing press. This meant bibles could be produced at a fraction the time it used to. This also meant more copies in a shorter time and the Word of God got further reach in a shorter time. Newspaper houses and Magazine publishers still use a printing press today (well thank you captain obvious).

Much later, shortly after the advent of electricity, the world was blessed with another few media breakthroughs, namely radio then a few years later, television. Marketers and Advertising agencies had it all figured out as they devised Integrated Marketing Campaigns with astronomical budgets. Ah, the good old days. Well, much to the dismay of many of these agencies, this media landscape started to change.

Behold! Enter The WWW

At first a website was seen as a cute way to put your company brochure online and on top of that the disastrous dot bomb era created skepticism that labeled the Internet as a bad media and business channel.

Fortunately, since then the Internet has matured. Now, in countries where broadband has achieved high levels of household penetration, the web has become the consumer medium of choice.

Why? Because people can do research, shop online, watch videos and connect with friends all in the comfort of their own homes. People can choose what media they want to consume, where and when they choose too, especially with mobile connectivity. Marketers can no longer dictate what advertising messages people get subjected too.

Social Media, The New Black

Then there is the phenomenon of Social Media. It changed the media landscape forever. Social Media websites have allowed consumers to connect with friends, family, colleagues and peers in ways that were never imaginable a few decades ago.

Technology has empowered the consumer to become the Prosumer. Prosumers are consumers who produce content such as videos, photos and blogs that can be instantly distributed and shared amongst millions of people via social media platforms. This is also known as user-generated content or UCG.

Here is an interesting bit of trivia about the reach of Traditional Media vs. the Internet and Social Media.

Years it took to reach a market audience of 50 Million:

  • Radio – 38 Years
  • TV – 13 Years
  • The Internet – 4 Years
  • The iPod – 3 Years
  • Facebook – 2 Years

So How Does The Internet Affect Traditional Media?

The Internet has decreased the need for Traditional Media because it enabled consumers to join social societies within their neighborhoods, across their countries and internationally. It has empowered them to converse at their leisure, 24/7, with friends.

Considering all that’s been said, the demise of Traditional Media can largely be attributed to the following factors:

  1. Decline in readership: The distribution of free news and information on the web has led to the decline in readership for traditional publications.
  2. Decline in revenues: The decline in readership means advertisers will spend their money elsewhere and this leads to a decline in ad revenue.
  3. Real-time updates: Traditional Media can’t compete with instantly updated user-generated content that’s immediately available for the world to see.
  4. The rise of UGC websites: People have the freedom of unlimited real time commentary on content while Traditional Media is static and is a one-way communication tool.
  5. Online Audio/Video channels: People can choose what they want to watch and listen, when they want to and where without any advertising interrupting their experience.

Simply put. The Internet has revolutionized the way things get done today. It has revolutionized the way we do business, the way we communicate and has broken down the walls of Traditional Media.

A recent example is the decision by Unilever UK to fire Lowe, their Ad agency of 15 years, in favor of crowdsourcing – which means it has thrown the brand creative pitch open to agencies and basically any person who can think of an idea, worldwide. This is done on the Internet of course.

Traditional Media will still be around for a while, but the Internet is getting more and more integrated into our daily lives.

Think about this. You could do without the Mail & Guardian or the MensHealth Mag for quite some time, perhaps live quite happily without it? But you just dare cut that ADSL connection…

Healthy Weight Loss Diet Secret – Stay Away From These Diets

From bookstore shelves to spam emails, the world around us is arranged with different dieting solutions promising that they're the healthy weight loss diet that you've been waiting for. Whether or not you have actually purchased one of these books, it's pretty easy to see that the majority of them are too good to be true.

The majority of them are simply fads that will come and go because they'll allow for some immediate fat loss and then you either stop losing weight, quit altitude, or rebound and start gaining weight once more. Although they may appear in different forms and under different names, fad diets are made up of the same six concepts that are recycled over and over again.

The six fads to watch out for

Among the many fads that promise a healthy weight loss diet, there are six that always seem to weasel their way back into our lives every few years. They are as follows:

1. Eating Fat-Free – this diet promises that as long as you do not eat any fat, you can eat whatever you'd like. The idea is that as long as you're not eating any fat, you will not get fatter. In reality, though, the majority of the fat-free products that are currently for sale are jammed with sugar and other empty calories designed to replace the flavor of fat.

They do not provide much in terms of vitamins, minerals, or fiber, so it will only make you unhealthy and send your metabolism reeling until you finally rebound and gain weight again when you start eating normally once again.

2. 100-Calorie snack packs – virtually every brand of snack on the market today now has its tiny 100-calorie individually packaged version that is supposed to let you snack without the risk of gorging.

Although the concept seems to be a good one, these snacks are typically unhealthy, low in fiber, and not very filling, so that you will not feel satisfied by eating them. This means that you'll likely eat more than one bag, or you'll eat something else, negating the value of the snack pack's measured calories.

3. The calorie vacuum – this one says that if you simply eat an amazingly low number of calories, then all you have to do is sit back and watch the weight fall off. In actuality, this will only slow the metabolism, causing the body to go into "starvation mode", where you'll feel hungry, and you will not lose much weight, and when you do start eating again, your weight will skyrocket.

Even a brisk daily walk of 20 to 30 minutes can make an intense difference on a calorie-reduced diet. Any healthy weight loss diet must include some increased activity level.

4. Detoxing – this diet promises that you'll lose weight instantly by cleaning up your digestive system and removing the tremendous amounts of toxic sludge that has been building up inside you through your lifetime. In reality, the body is actually very good at removing its own toxins, as long as you eat a high fiber diet to ensure that you're regular.

5. Protein, protein, protein – as long as you're eating protein and removing carbs, then you can eat all the fat you want, according to this fad. Instead, it's a much healthier idea to balance the levels of protein, carbs, and fat in your diet.

Whenever possible, try leaner proteins such as chicken or fish, and eat lots of veggies. Whole grain carbs and dairy are great for you and should not be removed, or you risk your proper nutrition.

6. Snack Cake and Donut Diet – The idea here is that as long as you stay within your maximum calorie limit, it really does not matter what you eat. If you want to eat donuts and snack cakes all day, then you can, as long as you do not overdo your limit. Except for the fact that every day that you eat like this, your body will lose critical vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which can be detrimental to your health.

If you're serious about losing weight and skipping the fads, then download your free copy of the "Experts Guide to Understanding Weight Loss" and work with a healthy weight loss diet that skips the fads and uses facts instead.